Costs for Basic Equipment
To monitor in-lake processes it is necessary to install sensors in the lake or close to any water uptake point. Buoys can be used as floating devices. If water monitoring should happen at different depths (e.g. to determine the location of the thermocline in summer) several sensors must be installed at several fixed depths or a winch system moving the one or more sensors up and down needs to be installed. To save the measurements, a data-logger must be installed on-site together with a modem to transfer the data. Meteorological data is often already available from the national met-offices; otherwise, installation of a meteorological station is needed.
Please be aware that the prices listed here are only estimates of the average cost. Some producers offer special prices, especially when several pieces of equipment are ordered together.
|Equipment/Sensor||Approximate cost (2016-Euro)||Possible Supplier||Notes on use|
|Buoy body / platform||2000-10000||YSI, Luode Consulting||Cost depends on design - professional monitoring buoy body vs raft type floats|
|Profiling Winch System||20000-45000||YSI, Luode Consulting||If measurements at multiple depths are needed this allows multi-probe sondes to make measurements at several depths. Most common commercial systems are from YSI and only work with YSI products|
|Solar cells power supply||100-500|
|Cabinet to store equipment||300-400|
|Miscellanous pieces (cables, etc.)||200|
|Meteorological Station (complete)||1000-2500||Not necessary if other sources of meteorological data are available. Can be mounted on land or on a buoy. Is needed to provide forcing data for models.|
|Humidity air temperature||1000||Rotronic|
|Barometric pressure sensor.||1000||Vaisala|
|Wind speed and direction||1000|
Different sensors can be used to monitor specific processes. A good overview of what variables and processes are commonly monitored in lake water management and what sensors are available is provided in this open-acess article: Marcé et al (2016).
The sensors listed below allow automated high-frequency monitoring of algae blooms and elevated DOM concentrations. Please be aware that the prices listed are only estimates of the average cost. Some producers offer special prices, when several equipment is ordered together. And for some purposes it might be more straightforward to use multi-probe sondes.
|Equipment/Sensor||Parameters measured||Approximate cost (2016-Euro)||Possible Supplier|
|Basic monitoring||Water temperature||50-100|
|Algal bloom monitoring||Chlorophyll Fluorescence||500|
|DOC monitoring||CDOM Fluorescence||4500-5000|
|Fluorometer||Chlorophyll, turbidity, CDOM, other||1500-15000|
Multi-probe sondes are comprised of several sensors which measure different parameters. The equipment presented here allows Automated High Frequency Monitoring of algae blooms and elevated DOM concentrations.
Please be aware that the prices listed are only estimates of the average cost. Some producers offer special prices, especially if several equipment are ordered at the same time. If several parameters are already measured, it might be more straightforward to use single sensors.
|Equipment/Sensor||Parameters measured||Approximate cost (2016-Euro)||Possible Supplier||Notes on use|
|Multi parameter sondes||8000 - 20000||YSI, Hydrolab||Contains an internal datalogger system. Can work as a standalone system at fixed depths or as part of winch profiling system. Possible probes listed below|
|Basic monitoring||Water Temperature||Needed for model testing and calibration|
|Depth||500-800||Needed for model testing and calibration|
|Conductivity||2500-3000||Optional for model testing and calibration|
|Turbidity||Optional for model testing and calibration|
|Algal bloom monitoring||Chlorophyll Fluorescence|
|DOC monitoring||CDOM Fluorescence|
Installation and maintenance
For monitoring in-lake processes it is necessary that the sensors are installed in the lake or close to any water uptake point. Buoys can be used as floating devices. If water monitoring should happen at different depth (e.g. to determine the location of the thermocline in summer) several sensors must be either installed at several fixed depth or a winch system moving the sensors up and down must be installed. To save the measurements a data-logger must be installed on-site and eventually a modem to transfer the data.
Please be aware that the prices listed here are only average estimates. Some producers offer special prices, when several equipment is ordered together.
|Installation (per year for systems with ice)||Time required||Notes|
|Assembling of monitoring equipment|
|Routine site visits to check equipment|
|Sensor calibration 2 times per year|
|Non-scheduled visits to resolve problems|
|For lakes with ice-cover in winter a removal of the system is required:|
|Prepare system for deployment||8h|
|Deploy system following ice out||8h||The job requires 2 persons, 4 hours for each of them|
|Remove system before ice||8h||The job requires 2 persons, 4 hours for each of them|
|Put system in winter storage||8h|
When it comes to lake water quality modelling, in principle 3 model types with increasing complexity can be distinguished:
- 1D models allow to modell lake processes in different depth.
- 2D models make a vertical distinction of lake processes.
- 3D models consider both vertical and horizontal changes.
The time requirements for setting up and running the 1D modelling system used in PROGNOS are listed in the table below:
|Type of Lake Model||Information Required||Time Required||Notes|
|GOTM /FABM 1D modeling system developed for PROGNOS||Open source model - no cost for code. May require some training costs depending on background of personnel.|
|Meteorological data, lake water level data, inflow discharge data||2 -14 days||Time for initial collection of data will depend on availability, if data is already used in organization etc. Data will need to be reformatted for use in model. Updating of data files will require minimal time.|
|High Frequency data to calibrate and verify model (water temperature DOC and phytoplankton monitoring)||Occasional checking of data and modelling system 1-4 h / week||Will be collected by automated monitoring systems already described. Data files will need to be reformatted. PROGNOS modeling system should handle most operations automatically|
|Water supplier operations data i.e. withdrawal depths etc.||minimal||This is probably already collected. Will require some set up for input to PROGNOS modeling system.|
|Model update and Forecast||1-4 h /week||Running forecast system and checking of forecasts|