Costs for Basic Equipment

To monitor in-lake processes it is necessary to install sensors in the lake or close to any water uptake point. Buoys can be used as floating devices. If water monitoring should happen at different depths (e.g. to determine the location of the thermocline in summer) several sensors must be installed at several fixed depths or a winch system moving the one or more sensors up and down needs to be installed. To save the measurements, a data-logger must be installed on-site together with a modem to transfer the data. Meteorological data is often already available from the national met-offices; otherwise, installation of a meteorological station is needed.

Please be aware that the prices listed here are only estimates of the average cost. Some producers offer special prices, especially when several pieces of equipment are ordered together.

Equipment/Sensor Approximate cost (2016-Euro) Possible Supplier Notes on use
Buoy body / platform 2000-10000 YSI, Luode Consulting Cost depends on design - professional monitoring buoy body vs raft type floats
Profiling Winch System 20000-45000 YSI, Luode Consulting If measurements at multiple depths are needed this allows multi-probe sondes to make measurements at several depths. Most common commercial systems are from YSI and only work with YSI products
Datalogger 500-10000 Campbell Scientific  
Modem 100-2000    
Solar cells power supply 100-500    
Power battery 50-200    
Cabinet to store equipment 300-400    
Miscellanous pieces (cables, etc.) 200    
Meteorological Station (complete) 1000-2500   Not necessary if other sources of meteorological data are available. Can be mounted on land or on a buoy. Is needed to provide forcing data for models.
Humidity air temperature 1000 Rotronic  
Barometric pressure sensor. 1000 Vaisala  
Solar radiation 600 LiCor  
Wind speed and direction 1000    

Single Sensors

Different sensors can be used to monitor specific processes. A good overview of what variables and processes are commonly monitored in lake water management and what sensors are available is provided in this open-acess article: Marcé et al (2016).

The sensors listed below allow automated high-frequency monitoring of algae blooms and elevated DOM concentrations. Please be aware that the prices listed are only estimates of the average cost. Some producers offer special prices, when several equipment is ordered together. And for some purposes it might be more straightforward to use multi-probe sondes.

Equipment/Sensor Parameters measured Approximate cost (2016-Euro) Possible Supplier
Basic monitoring Water temperature 50-100
Depth
Conductivity 500-800
Turbidity 2500-3000
Algal bloom monitoring Chlorophyll Fluorescence 500
Phycocyanin Fluorescence N/A
Dissolved Oxygen 1000-8500
DOC monitoring CDOM Fluorescence 4500-5000
Fluorometer Chlorophyll, turbidity, CDOM, other 1500-15000

Multi-probe sondes

Multi-probe sondes are comprised of several sensors which measure different parameters. The equipment presented here allows Automated High Frequency Monitoring of algae blooms and elevated DOM concentrations.

Please be aware that the prices listed are only estimates of the average cost. Some producers offer special prices, especially if several equipment are ordered at the same time. If several parameters are already measured, it might be more straightforward to use single sensors.

Equipment/Sensor Parameters measured Approximate cost (2016-Euro) Possible Supplier Notes on use
Multi parameter sondes 8000 - 20000  YSI, Hydrolab Contains an internal datalogger system. Can work as a standalone system at fixed depths or as part of winch profiling system. Possible probes listed below
Basic monitoring Water Temperature Needed for model testing and calibration
Depth 500-800 Needed for model testing and calibration
Conductivity 2500-3000 Optional for model testing and calibration
Turbidity Optional for model testing and calibration
Algal bloom monitoring Chlorophyll Fluorescence
Phycocyanin Fluorescence
Dissolved Oxygen
DOC monitoring CDOM Fluorescence

Installation and maintenance

For monitoring in-lake processes it is necessary that the sensors are installed in the lake or close to any water uptake point. Buoys can be used as floating devices. If water monitoring should happen at different depth (e.g. to determine the location of the thermocline in summer) several sensors must be either installed at several fixed depth or a winch system moving the sensors up and down must be installed. To save the measurements a data-logger must be installed on-site and eventually a modem to transfer the data.

Please be aware that the prices listed here are only average estimates. Some producers offer special prices, when several equipment is ordered together.

Installation (per year for systems with ice) Time required Notes
Assembling of monitoring equipment
Routine site visits to check equipment
Sensor calibration 2 times per year
Non-scheduled visits to resolve problems
For lakes with ice-cover in winter a removal of the system is required:
Prepare system for deployment 8h
Deploy system following ice out 8h The job requires 2 persons, 4 hours for each of them
Remove system before ice 8h The job requires 2 persons, 4 hours for each of them
Put system in winter storage 8h

Modelling

When it comes to lake water quality modelling, in principle 3 model types with increasing complexity can be distinguished:

  • 1D models allow to modell lake processes in different depth.
  • 2D models make a vertical distinction of lake processes.
  • 3D models consider both vertical and horizontal changes.

The time requirements for setting up and running the 1D modelling system used in PROGNOS are listed in the table below:

Type of Lake Model Information Required Time Required Notes
GOTM /FABM 1D modeling system developed for PROGNOS     Open source model - no cost for code. May require some training costs depending on background of personnel.
  Meteorological data, lake water level data, inflow discharge data 2 -14 days Time for initial collection of data will depend on availability, if data is already used in organization etc. Data will need to be reformatted for use in model. Updating of data files will require minimal time.
  High Frequency data to calibrate and verify model (water temperature DOC and phytoplankton monitoring) Occasional checking of data and modelling system 1-4 h / week Will be collected by automated monitoring systems already described. Data files will need to be reformatted. PROGNOS modeling system should handle most operations automatically
  Water supplier operations data i.e. withdrawal depths etc. minimal This is probably already collected. Will require some set up for input to PROGNOS modeling system.
  Model update and Forecast 1-4 h /week Running forecast system and checking of forecasts